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Neurological Diseases and Conditions

A mental condition, beginning in childhood and often persisting into later life, that is characterized by persistent difficulty in maintaining attention and concentration, sometimes with a degree of impulsive or hyperactive behavior.

A progressive nervous system disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord, causing loss of muscle control. ALS is often called Lou Gehrig’s disease.
A progressive disease that destroys memory and other important mental functions. Brain cell connections and the cells themselves degenerate and die, eventually destroying memory and other important mental functions. Memory loss and confusion are the main symptoms.
A language disorder that affects a person’s ability to communicate. It can occur suddenly after a stroke or head injury, or develop slowly from a growing brain tumor or disease. Aphasia affects a person’s ability to express and understand written and spoken language.
An abnormal connection between arteries and veins, usually in the brain or spine. AVM is usually present at birth. The arteries and veins in an arteriovenous malformation can rupture, causing bleeding into the brain or spinal cord. Symptoms can include headaches and seizures. 
Sudden weakness in the muscles on one half of the face. Bell’s palsy may be a reaction to a viral infection. It rarely occurs more than once. Bell’s palsy is characterized by muscle weakness that causes one half of the face to droop. 

Uncontrolled squeezing or twitching of the eyelids.

A weakness in a blood vessel in the brain that balloons and fills with blood. Most intracranial aneurysms occur between the underside of the brain and the base of the skull. The aneurysm can leak or rupture, causing life-threatening bleeding. An unruptured aneurysm usually causes no symptoms. A key symptom of a ruptured aneurysm is a sudden, severe headache. 
Brain dysfunction caused by an outside force, usually a violent blow to the head. Traumatic brain injury often occurs as a result of a severe sports injury or car accident. Immediate or delayed symptoms may include confusion, blurry vision, and concentration difficulty.
Narrowing of the blood vessels in the neck that carry blood from the heart to the brain. Carotid artery stenosis can be caused by cholesterol build-up in the blood vessels (atherosclerosis). Blood clots can form in this area and travel up to the brain. This condition may be present for a long time before symptoms appear. When symptoms do occur, stroke or brief stroke-like attacks are common. If this condition is discovered as a result of a stroke or stroke-like attack, cholesterol lowering medications and blood thinners may be used to improve blood flow to the brain. If the degree of narrowing is severe, surgery may be needed to open the blood vessel.
A congenital disorder of movement, muscle tone, or posture. Cerebral palsy is due to abnormal brain development, often before birth. Symptoms include exaggerated reflexes, floppy or rigid limbs, and involuntary motions. These appear by early childhood.
A condition in which brain tissue extends into the spinal canal, present at birth. It occurs when part of the skull is abnormally small or misshapen.
A brain injury caused by a blow to the head or a violent shaking of the head and body. This occurs from a mild blow to the head, either with or without loss of consciousness and can lead to temporary cognitive symptoms. Symptoms may include headache, confusion, lack of coordination, memory loss, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, ringing in the ears, sleepiness, and excessive fatigue.
This is a condition of the discs between vertebrae with loss of cushioning, fragmentation and herniation related to aging. There may be no symptoms. In some cases, the spine loses flexibility and bone spurs may pinch a nerve root, causing pain or weakness.
Altered sense of balance and place, possibly described as lightheaded, feeling faint, or as if head is spinning.
Inflammation of the brain, often due to infection. The infection may be bacterial or viral. In some cases, encephalitis may be the result of an immune system disorder. Mild cases may cause no symptoms or mild flu-like symptoms. Severe cases can be life-threatening. Immediate medical attention is needed for symptoms such as confusion, hallucinations, seizures, weakness, and loss of sensation.

A rare inherited disease that causes progressive nervous system damage and movement problems. It usually begins in childhood and leads to impaired muscle coordination (ataxia) that worsens over time.

A condition in which the immune system attacks the nerves. The condition may be triggered by an acute bacterial or viral infection. Symptoms start as weakness and tingling in the feet and legs that spread to the upper body. Paralysis can occur.
This condition occurs when the soft center of a spinal disc pushes through a crack in the tougher exterior casing. Some herniated discs cause no symptoms. Others can irritate nearby nerves and result in pain, numbness, or weakness in an arm or leg.
An inherited condition in which nerve cells in the brain break down over time. It typically starts in a person’s 30s or 40s. Usually, Huntington’s disease results in progressive movement, thinking (cognitive), and psychiatric symptoms.
Abnormally excessive sweating involving the extremities, underarms, and face, usually unrelated to body temperature or exercise.

It is unusual forgetfulness. You may not be able to remember new events, recall one or more memories of the past, or both. The memory loss may be for a short time and then resolve (transient).

Refers to a group of nervous system (neurological) conditions that cause either increased movements or reduced or slow movements. These movements may be voluntary or involuntary.
Multiple Sclerosis is a disease that impacts the brain, spinal cord and optic nerves, which make up the central nervous system.
Painful contractions and tightening of your muscles. They’re common, involuntary and unpredictable. Although there are steps you can take to prevent a muscle spasm and treat it when it attacks, those methods are not always reliable.
These diseases affect the function of muscles due to problems with the nerves and muscles in your body. The most common sign of these diseases is muscle weakness. Some examples are: ALS, muscular dystrophy, myasthenia gravis, and peripheral neuropathy.

Neuropathy, or nerve damage can result from a wide range of conditions. It is not a single health condition but rather a term used to describe a range of health problems involving damage to the peripheral nerves.

It is an abnormal buildup of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the brain’s ventricles, or cavities. It occurs if the normal flow of CSF throughout the brain and spinal cord is blocked in some way. It is typically characterized by a triad of symptoms: gait disturbance (difficulty walking), cognitive impairment, and impaired bladder control.
A loss of sensation or feeling in a part of your body. It is often also used to describe other changes in sensation, such as burning or a pins-and-needles feeling. Usually temporary, often occurs in the arms, hands, legs or feet. Numbness can occur along a single nerve on one side of the body, or it may occur symmetrically, on both sides of the body.
A disorder of the central nervous system that affects movement, often including tremors. Nerve cell damage in the brain causes dopamine levels to drop, leading to the symptoms of Parkinson’s. Parkinson’s often starts with a tremor in one hand. Other symptoms are slow movement, stiffness, and loss of balance.
A condition characterized by a nearly irresistible urge to move the legs, typically in the evenings. Restless legs syndrome typically occurs while sitting or lying down. It generally worsens with age and can disrupt sleep. The main symptom is a nearly irresistible urge to move the legs.
Damage to any part of the spinal cord or nerves at the end of the spinal canal. A traumatic spinal cord injury may happen because of a sudden blow or cut to the spine. A spinal cord injury often causes permanent loss of strength, sensation, and function below the site of the injury.
A narrowing of the spinal canal. Spinal stenosis can put pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves within the spine. It commonly occurs in the neck and lower back. The condition is often caused by age-related wear and tear. Symptoms, if they occur, include pain, numbness, muscle weakness, and impaired bladder or bowel control.
Physical discomfort occurring anywhere on the spine or back, ranging from mild to disabling. Spine pain can have causes that aren’t due to underlying disease. Examples include overuse such as working out or lifting too much, prolonged sitting and lying down, sleeping in an uncomfortable position, or wearing a poorly fitting backpack.
Damage to the brain from interruption of its blood supply. A stroke is a medical emergency. Symptoms of stroke include trouble walking, speaking, and understanding, as well as paralysis or numbness of the face, arm, or leg.
A brief stroke-like attack that, despite resolving within minutes to hours, still requires immediate medical attention to distinguish from an actual stroke. A transient ischemic attack may be a warning sign of a future stroke. Symptoms include weakness on one side of the body, vision problems, and slurred speech. These are transient and often resolve within 24 hours.
A compulsive, repetitive sound or movement that’s often difficult to control.
Involuntary shaking or movement, ranging from slight to severe, and commonly affecting hands, legs, face, head, or vocal cords.
A chronic pain condition affecting the trigeminal nerve in the face. The trigeminal nerve carries sensation from the face to the brain. It’s most common in women over age 50. Symptoms range from mild to severe facial pain, often triggered by chewing, speaking, or brushing the teeth
Pain and compromised movement of the jaw joint and the surrounding muscles. The temporomandibular joint or TMJ acts like a sliding hinge, connecting your jawbone to your skull. Dysfunction can lead to pain and discomfort. Jaw pain, difficulty chewing, and clicking and locking of the jaw joint are some of the symptoms.
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